10 Common Study Problems

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(adapted from www.ncsu.edu)

1."I Don't Know Where To Begin"

Take Control. Make a list of all the things you have to do. Break your workload down into manageable chunks. Prioritise! Schedule your time realistically. Interrupt study time with planned study breaks. Begin studying early, with an hour or two per day, and slowly build as the exam approaches. Decide what to study (reasonable task) and how long or how many (chapters, pages, problems, etc.). Set and stick to deadlines.

2. "I've Got So Much To Study . . . And So Little Time"

Preview. Look over your notes. Identify the most important topics and areas still not understood. Previewing saves time by helping you organise and focus in on the main topics. Adapt this method to your own style and study material, but remember, previewing is not an effective substitute for reading. Allow longer, "massed" time periods for organising relationships and concepts, outlining, and writing essays. Use shorter, "spaced" time intervals for rote memorising, review, and self-testing. Use odd moments for recall/review.

3. "This Stuff Is So Dry, I Can't Even Stay Awake Reading It"

Attack! Get actively involved with the text as you read. Ask yourself, "What is important to remember about this section?" Take notes or underline key concepts. Discuss the material with others in your class. Study together. If you are really struggling to start, begin with an easy, interesting aspect of the subject. Study 50 minutes, and then take a 10 minute break. Stretch, relax, have an energy snack. If you get tired or bored, switch task/activity, subject, or environment. Stop studying when you are no longer being productive.

4. "I Read It. I Understand It. But I Just Can't Get It To Sink In"

Elaborate. We remember best the things that are most meaningful to us. As you are reading, try to elaborate upon new information with your own examples. Try to integrate what you're studying with what you already know. You will be able to remember new material better if you can link it to something that's already meaningful to you. Some techniques include:

  • Chunking: An effective way to simplify and make information more meaningful. For example, suppose you wanted to remember the colours in the visible spectrum (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet); you would have to memorize seven "chunks" of information in order. But if you take the first letter of each colour, you can spell the name "Roy G. Biv", and reduce the information to three "chunks".
  • Mnemonics: Any memory-assisting technique that helps us to associate new information with something familiar. For example, to remember a formula or equation, we may use letters of the alphabet to represent certain numbers. Then we can change an abstract formula into a more meaningful word or phrase, so we'll be able to remember it better. Sound-alike associations can be very effective, too, especially while trying to learn a new language. The key is to create your own links, then you won't forget them.

5. "I Guess I Understand It"

Test yourself. Make up questions about key sections in notes or reading. Keep in mind what the teacher has stressed in class. Examine the relationships between concepts and sections. Often, simply by changing section headings you can generate many effective questions. For example, a section entitled "Bystander Apathy" might be changed into questions such as: "What is bystander apathy?", "What are the causes of bystander apathy?", and "What are some examples of bystander apathy?" Study with a friend. Quiz each other, compare notes and predicted test questions.

6. "There's Too Much To Remember"

Organise. Information is recalled better if it is represented in an organised framework that will make retrieval more systematic. There are many techniques that can help you organise new information, including:

  • Write chapter outlines or summaries; emphasise relationships between sections.
  • Group information into categories or hierarchies, where possible.
  • Information Mapping. Draw up a matrix to organise and interrelate material. For example, if you were trying to understand the causes of World War I, you could make a chart listing all the major countries involved across the top, and then list the important issues and events down the side. Next, in the boxes in between, you could describe the impact each issue had on each country to help you understand these complex historical developments.

7. "I Knew It A Minute Ago"

Review. After reading a section, try to recall the information contained in it. Try answering the questions you made up for that section. If you cannot recall enough, re-read portions you had trouble remembering. The more time you spend studying, the more you tend to recall. Even after the point where information can be perfectly recalled, further study makes the material less likely to be forgotten entirely. In other words, you can't overstudy. However, how you organise and integrate new information is still more important than how much time you spend studying.

8. "But I Like To Study In Bed"

Context. Recall is better when study context (physical location, as well as mental, emotional, and physical state) are similar to the test context. The greater the similarity between the study setting and the test setting, the greater the likelihood that material studied will be recalled during the test. Have special places to study. Take into consideration lighting, temperature, and availability of materials.

9. "Cramming Before A Test Helps Keep It Fresh In My Mind"

Spacing: Start studying now. Keep studying as you go along. Begin with an hour or two a day about one week before the exam, and then increase study time as the exam approaches. Recall increases as study time gets spread out over time.

10. "I'm Gonna Stay Up All Night 'til I Get This"

Avoid Mental Exhaustion. Take short breaks often when studying and give yourself rewards. Before a test, have a rested mind. When you take a study break, and just before you go to sleep at night, don't think about academics. Relax and unwind, mentally and physically. Otherwise, your break won't refresh you and you'll find yourself lying awake at night. Avoid computer/TV/mobile phone use one hour before bed. Do rote memory tasks and review, especially details, just before you fall asleep. Eat well, sleep well, and exercise.